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Faculty Profiles

Patrick Phillips, PhD, MS, MA
Assistant Professor

1001 Potrero Ave
San Francisco, CA 94110
[email protected]

The objective of my research continues to be to design, implement, and optimize clinical trials for new treatments for tuberculosis in order to deliver safer and more efficacious regimens for patients. A key focus of my research has been to improve the design of TB clinical trials through implementation of novel methodology so that regimen development is faster and more efficient. This was motivated by my PhD thesis evaluating surrogate endpoints for TB trials, and has grown in a number of areas through the various collaborations and consortia that I contribute to.

I joined the Division of Pulmonology in July 2017, having previously been senior statistician at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL in London. I have worked on late-phase clinical trials in tuberculosis for more than a decade, most recently as trial statistician in the REMoxTB and RIFAQUIN phase III trials. I lead the statistics core of the African/European PanACEA consortium evaluating novel regimens for the treatment of TB, designing the PanACEA MAMS-TB phase II trial with a Multi-Arm Multi-Stage (MAMS) design. I am lead statistician for the USAID-funded STREAM Stage 1 trial evaluating the new 9-month MDR-TB regimen. Ongoing methodological areas of interest include the evaluation and use of surrogate endpoints, the conduct and analysis of non-inferiority trials and trial design with a focus on adaptive designs.

Education and Training

Location Degree or Training Specialty Date
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London PDip Postgraduate Diploma of the LSHTM by research in Epidemiology and Population Health 2010
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London PhD Medical Statistics 2009
Clare College, University of Cambridge MA Mathematics 2007
University of Reading MSc Biometry 2005
Clare College, University of Cambridge BA Hons Mathematics 2003


Adaptive trial designs, Clinical trial design, Clinical trials, Surrogate endpoints, Trials methodology, Tuberculosis

Featured Videos

Related Web Sites

Awarded Grants

Project Title Project Number Fiscal Year
Phase 2 Pharmacodynamic Study of High-dose Levofloxacin in MDR-TB Treatment U01AI100805 2017
Recent Articles (67)

Fregonese F, Ahuja SD, Akkerman OW, Arakaki-Sanchez D, Ayakaka I, Baghaei P, Bang D, Bastos M, Benedetti A, Bonnet M, Cattamanchi A, Cegielski P, Chien JY, Cox H, Dedicoat M, Erkens C, Escalante P, Falzon D, Garcia-Prats AJ, Gegia M, Gillespie SH, Glynn JR, Goldberg S, Griffith D, Jacobson KR, Johnston JC, Jones-López EC, Khan A, Koh WJ, Kritski A, Lan ZY, Lee JH, Li PZ, Maciel EL, Galliez RM, Merle CSC, Munang M, Narendran G, Nguyen VN, Nunn A, Ohkado A, Park JS, Phillips PPJ, Ponnuraja C, Reves R, Romanowski K, Seung K, Schaaf HS, Skrahina A, Soolingen DV, Tabarsi P, Trajman A, Trieu L, Banurekha VV, Viiklepp P, Wang JY, Yoshiyama T, Menzies D. Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Apr; 6(4):265-275.

Tweed CD, Wills GH, Crook AM, Dawson R, Diacon AH, Louw CE, McHugh TD, Mendel C, Meredith S, Mohapi L, Murphy ME, Murray S, Murthy S, Nunn AJ, Phillips PPJ, Singh K, Spigelman M, Gillespie SH. Liver toxicity associated with tuberculosis chemotherapy in the REMoxTB study. BMC Med. 2018 03 28; 16(1):46.

Bouton TC, Phillips PPJ, Mitnick CD, Peloquin CA, Eisenach K, Patientia RF, Lecca L, Gotuzzo E, Gandhi NR, Butler D, Diacon AH, Martel B, Santillan J, Hunt KR, Vargas D, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Seas C, Dianis N, Moreno-Martinez A, Horsburgh CR. An optimized background regimen design to evaluate the contribution of levofloxacin to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017 Nov 25; 18(1):563.

Phillips PPJ, Mendel CM, Nunn AJ, McHugh TD, Crook AM, Hunt R, Bateson A, Gillespie SH. A comparison of liquid and solid culture for determining relapse and durable cure in phase III TB trials for new regimens. BMC Med. 2017 11 24; 15(1):207.

Murphy ME, Phillips PPJ, Mendel CM, Bongard E, Bateson ALC, Hunt R, Murthy S, Singh KP, Brown M, Crook AM, Nunn AJ, Meredith SK, Lipman M, McHugh TD, Gillespie SH. Spot sputum samples are at least as good as early morning samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BMC Med. 2017 10 27; 15(1):192.

Aarnoutse RE, Kibiki GS, Reither K, Semvua HH, Haraka F, Mtabho CM, Mpagama SG, van den Boogaard J, Sumari-de Boer IM, Magis-Escurra C, Wattenberg M, Logger JGM, Te Brake LHM, Hoelscher M, Gillespie SH, Colbers A, Phillips PPJ, Plemper van Balen G, Boeree MJ. Pharmacokinetics, Tolerability, and Bacteriological Response of Rifampin Administered at 600, 900, and 1,200 Milligrams Daily in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 11; 61(11).

Parmar MK, Sydes MR, Cafferty FH, Choodari-Oskooei B, Langley RE, Brown L, Phillips PP, Spears MR, Rowley S, Kaplan R, James ND, Maughan T, Paton N, Royston PJ. Testing many treatments within a single protocol over 10?years at MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL: Multi-arm, multi-stage platform, umbrella and basket protocols. Clin Trials. 2017 Oct; 14(5):451-461.

Ramalho DMP, Miranda PFC, Andrade MK, Brígido T, Dalcolmo MP, Mesquita E, Dias CF, Gambirasio AN, Ueleres Braga J, Detjen A, Phillips PPJ, Langley I, Fujiwara PI, Squire SB, Oliveira MM, Kritski AL. Outcomes from patients with presumed drug resistant tuberculosis in five reference centers in Brazil. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 08 15; 17(1):571.

Phillips PPJ. Setting Tuberculosis Regimen Development on a Firm Foundation. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 01; 65(1):55-56.

Witney AA, Bateson AL, Jindani A, Phillips PP, Coleman D, Stoker NG, Butcher PD, McHugh TD. Use of whole-genome sequencing to distinguish relapse from reinfection in a completed tuberculosis clinical trial. BMC Med. 2017 03 29; 15(1):71.

Phillips PPJ. Methodological considerations in clinical trials for new MDR-TB treatment regimens. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 12 01; 20(12):4-7.

Boeree MJ, Heinrich N, Aarnoutse R, Diacon AH, Dawson R, Rehal S, Kibiki GS, Churchyard G, Sanne I, Ntinginya NE, Minja LT, Hunt RD, Charalambous S, Hanekom M, Semvua HH, Mpagama SG, Manyama C, Mtafya B, Reither K, Wallis RS, Venter A, Narunsky K, Mekota A, Henne S, Colbers A, van Balen GP, Gillespie SH, Phillips PPJ, Hoelscher M. High-dose rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and SQ109 for treating tuberculosis: a multi-arm, multi-stage randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jan; 17(1):39-49.

Knapp M, King D, Romeo R, Adams J, Baldwin A, Ballard C, Banerjee S, Barber R, Bentham P, Brown RG, Burns A, Dening T, Findlay D, Holmes C, Johnson T, Jones R, Katona C, Lindesay J, Macharouthu A, McKeith I, McShane R, O'Brien JT, Phillips PPJ, Sheehan B, Howard R. Cost-effectiveness of donepezil and memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (the DOMINO-AD trial). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Dec; 32(12):1205-1216.

Rehal S, Morris TP, Fielding K, Carpenter JR, Phillips PP. Non-inferiority trials: are they inferior? A systematic review of reporting in major medical journals. BMJ Open. 2016 10 07; 6(10):e012594.

Bratton DJ, Parmar MK, Phillips PP, Choodari-Oskooei B. Type I error rates of multi-arm multi-stage clinical trials: strong control and impact of intermediate outcomes. Trials. 2016 07 02; 17(1):309.

Berry C, Yates TA, Seddon JA, Phillips PP, du Cros P. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid for the treatment of XDR-TB: a study in China. Eur Respir J. 2016 05; 47(5):1591-2.

Eliseev P, Balantcev G, Nikishova E, Gaida A, Bogdanova E, Enarson D, Ornstein T, Detjen A, Dacombe R, Gospodarevskaya E, Phillips PP, Mann G, Squire SB, Mariandyshev A. The Impact of a Line Probe Assay Based Diagnostic Algorithm on Time to Treatment Initiation and Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0152761.

Phillips PP, Dooley KE, Gillespie SH, Heinrich N, Stout JE, Nahid P, Diacon AH, Aarnoutse RE, Kibiki GS, Boeree MJ, Hoelscher M. A new trial design to accelerate tuberculosis drug development: the Phase IIC Selection Trial with Extended Post-treatment follow-up (STEP). BMC Med. 2016 Mar 23; 14:51.

Phillips PP, Fletcher HA, Abubakar I, Lipman MC, McHugh TD. World TB Day 2016: an interview with leading experts in tuberculosis research. BMC Med. 2016 Mar 23; 14:55.

Furin J, Alirol E, Allen E, Fielding K, Merle C, Abubakar I, Andersen J, Davies G, Dheda K, Diacon A, Dooley KE, Dravnice G, Eisenach K, Everitt D, Ferstenberg D, Goolam-Mahomed A, Grobusch MP, Gupta R, Harausz E, Harrington M, Horsburgh CR, Lienhardt C, McNeeley D, Mitnick CD, Nachman S, Nahid P, Nunn AJ, Phillips P, Rodriguez C, Shah S, Wells C, Thomas-Nyang'wa B, du Cros P. Drug-resistant tuberculosis clinical trials: proposed core research definitions in adults. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Mar; 20(3):290-4.

Phillips PP, Mendel CM, Burger DA, Crook AM, Nunn AJ, Dawson R, Diacon AH, Gillespie SH. Erratum to: Limited role of culture conversion for decision-making in individual patient care and for advancing novel regimens to confirmatory clinical trials. BMC Med. 2016 Feb 23; 14:36.

Phillips PP, Mendel CM, Burger DA, Crook AM, Crook A, Nunn AJ, Dawson R, Diacon AH, Gillespie SH. Limited role of culture conversion for decision-making in individual patient care and for advancing novel regimens to confirmatory clinical trials. BMC Med. 2016 Feb 04; 14:19.

Dooley KE, Phillips PP, Nahid P, Hoelscher M. Challenges in the clinical assessment of novel tuberculosis drugs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Jul 01; 102:116-22.

Phillips PPJ & Nunn AJ. Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Abubakar I, Stagg HR, Cohen T, Rodrigues LC (Eds.). Clinical Trials. 2016.

Phillips PP, Morris TP, Walker AS. DOOR/RADAR: A Gateway Into the Unknown? Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 15; 62(6):814-5.

Howard R, McShane R, Lindesay J, Ritchie C, Baldwin A, Barber R, Burns A, Dening T, Findlay D, Holmes C, Jones R, Jones R, McKeith I, Macharouthu A, O'Brien J, Sheehan B, Juszczak E, Katona C, Hills R, Knapp M, Ballard C, Brown RG, Banerjee S, Adams J, Johnson T, Bentham P, Phillips PP. Nursing home placement in the Donepezil and Memantine in Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease (DOMINO-AD) trial: secondary and post-hoc analyses. Lancet Neurol. 2015 Dec; 14(12):1171-81.

Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Abubakar I. Reducing relapse in tuberculosis treatment. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Oct; 19(10):1263-4.

Boeree MJ, Diacon AH, Dawson R, Narunsky K, du Bois J, Venter A, Phillips PP, Gillespie SH, McHugh TD, Hoelscher M, Heinrich N, Rehal S, van Soolingen D, van Ingen J, Magis-Escurra C, Burger D, Plemper van Balen G, Aarnoutse RE. A Step toward an Optimized Rifampin Dose Completed. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Aug 15; 192(4):525-6.

Bratton DJ, Choodari-Oskooei B, Phillips PP, Sydes MR, Parmar MK. Comments on 'A modest proposal for dropping poor arms in clinical trials' by Proschan and Dodd. Stat Med. 2015 Aug 15; 34(18):2678-9.

Davies GR, Phillips PP, Jaki T. Adaptive clinical trials in tuberculosis: applications, challenges and solutions. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Jun; 19(6):626-34.

Boeree MJ, Diacon AH, Dawson R, Narunsky K, du Bois J, Venter A, Phillips PP, Gillespie SH, McHugh TD, Hoelscher M, Heinrich N, Rehal S, van Soolingen D, van Ingen J, Magis-Escurra C, Burger D, Plemper van Balen G, Aarnoutse RE. A dose-ranging trial to optimize the dose of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 May 01; 191(9):1058-65.

Phillips PP, Lipman MC. Safe and effective treatment for patients with isoniazid drug resistance. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Apr; 19(4):494-5.

Gillespie SH, Mendel CM. Shorter moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2015 02 05; 372(6):577.

Heinrich N, Dawson R, du Bois J, Narunsky K, Horwith G, Phipps AJ, Nacy CA, Aarnoutse RE, Boeree MJ, Gillespie SH, Venter A, Henne S, Rachow A, Phillips PP, Hoelscher M, Diacon AH. Early phase evaluation of SQ109 alone and in combination with rifampicin in pulmonary TB patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 May; 70(5):1558-66.

Nimmo C, Lipman M, Phillips PP, McHugh T, Nunn A, Abubakar I. Shortening treatment of tuberculosis: lessons from fluoroquinolone trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Feb; 15(2):141-3.

Bowness R, Boeree MJ, Aarnoutse R, Dawson R, Diacon A, Mangu C, Heinrich N, Ntinginya NE, Kohlenberg A, Mtafya B, Phillips PP, Rachow A, Plemper van Balen G, Gillespie SH. The relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis MGIT time to positivity and cfu in sputum samples demonstrates changing bacterial phenotypes potentially reflecting the impact of chemotherapy on critical sub-populations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Feb; 70(2):448-55.

Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Churchyard GJ, Charalambous S, Hatherill M, Geldenhuys H, McIlleron HM, Zvada SP, Mungofa S, Shah NA, Zizhou S, Magweta L, Shepherd J, Nyirenda S, van Dijk JH, Clouting HE, Coleman D, Bateson AL, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Mitchison DA. High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 23; 371(17):1599-608.

Nunn AJ, Rusen ID, Van Deun A, Torrea G, Phillips PP, Chiang CY, Squire SB, Madan J, Meredith SK. Evaluation of a standardized treatment regimen of anti-tuberculosis drugs for patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014 Sep 09; 15:353.

Gillespie SH, Crook AM, McHugh TD, Mendel CM, Meredith SK, Murray SR, Pappas F, Phillips PP, Nunn AJ. Four-month moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 23; 371(17):1577-87.

Turkova A, Seddon JA, Nunn AJ, Gibb DM, Phillips PP. Short intensified treatment in children with drug-susceptible tuberculous meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Sep; 33(9):993.

Honeyborne I, Mtafya B, Phillips PP, Hoelscher M, Ntinginya EN, Kohlenberg A, Rachow A, Rojas-Ponce G, McHugh TD, Heinrich N. The molecular bacterial load assay replaces solid culture for measuring early bactericidal response to antituberculosis treatment. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Aug; 52(8):3064-7.

Zumla AI, Gillespie SH, Hoelscher M, Philips PP, Cole ST, Abubakar I, McHugh TD, Schito M, Maeurer M, Nunn AJ. New antituberculosis drugs, regimens, and adjunct therapies: needs, advances, and future prospects. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; 14(4):327-40.

Bratton DJ, Phillips PP, Parmar MK. A multi-arm multi-stage clinical trial design for binary outcomes with application to tuberculosis. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013 Nov 14; 13:139.

Brigden G, Nyang'wa BT, du Cros P, Varaine F, Hughes J, Rich M, Horsburgh CR, Mitnick CD, Nuermberger E, McIlleron H, Phillips PP, Balasegaram M. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Jan 01; 92(1):68-74.

Friedrich SO, Rachow A, Saathoff E, Singh K, Mangu CD, Dawson R, Phillips PP, Venter A, Bateson A, Boehme CC, Heinrich N, Hunt RD, Boeree MJ, Zumla A, McHugh TD, Gillespie SH, Diacon AH, Hoelscher M. Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay as an early sputum biomarker of response to tuberculosis treatment. Lancet Respir Med. 2013 Aug; 1(6):462-70.

Nunn AJ, Phillips PP. An analysis with serious flaws. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Oct; 57(7):1064-5.

Phillips PP, Nunn AJ, Paton NI. Is a 4-month regimen adequate to cure patients with non-cavitary tuberculosis and negative cultures at 2 months? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Jun; 17(6):807-9.

Phillips PP, Fielding K, Nunn AJ. An evaluation of culture results during treatment for tuberculosis as surrogate endpoints for treatment failure and relapse. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63840.

Nunn A, Phillips PP, Abubakar I. Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013 May; 19(3):273-9.

Horsburgh CR, Shea KM, Phillips P, Lavalley M. Randomized clinical trials to identify optimal antibiotic treatment duration. Trials. 2013 Mar 28; 14:88.

Phillips PP, Bratton DJ, Nunn AJ, Hoelscher M. Reply to Dodd and Proschan. J Infect Dis. 2013 Feb 01; 207(3):544-5.

Bratton DJ, Williams HC, Kahan BC, Phillips PP, Nunn AJ. When inferiority meets non-inferiority: implications for interim analyses. Clin Trials. 2012 Oct; 9(5):605-9.

Phillips PP, Gillespie SH, Boeree M, Heinrich N, Aarnoutse R, McHugh T, Pletschette M, Lienhardt C, Hafner R, Mgone C, Zumla A, Nunn AJ, Hoelscher M. Innovative trial designs are practical solutions for improving the treatment of tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2012 May 15; 205 Suppl 2:S250-7.

Howard R, McShane R, Lindesay J, Ritchie C, Baldwin A, Barber R, Burns A, Dening T, Findlay D, Holmes C, Hughes A, Jacoby R, Jones R, Jones R, McKeith I, Macharouthu A, O'Brien J, Passmore P, Sheehan B, Juszczak E, Katona C, Hills R, Knapp M, Ballard C, Brown R, Banerjee S, Onions C, Griffin M, Adams J, Gray R, Johnson T, Bentham P, Phillips P. Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 08; 366(10):893-903.

Nahid P, Saukkonen J, Mac Kenzie WR, Johnson JL, Phillips PP, Andersen J, Bliven-Sizemore E, Belisle JT, Boom WH, Luetkemeyer A, Campbell TB, Eisenach KD, Hafner R, Lennox JL, Makhene M, Swindells S, Villarino ME, Weiner M, Benson C, Burman W. CDC/NIH Workshop. Tuberculosis biomarker and surrogate endpoint research roadmap. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct 15; 184(8):972-9.

Honeyborne I, McHugh TD, Phillips PP, Bannoo S, Bateson A, Carroll N, Perrin FM, Ronacher K, Wright L, van Helden PD, Walzl G, Gillespie SH. Molecular bacterial load assay, a culture-free biomarker for rapid and accurate quantification of sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillary load during treatment. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Nov; 49(11):3905-11.

Perrin FM, Woodward N, Phillips PP, McHugh TD, Nunn AJ, Lipman MC, Gillespie SH. Radiological cavitation, sputum mycobacterial load and treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Dec; 14(12):1596-602.

Howard R, Phillips P, Johnson T, O'Brien J, Sheehan B, Lindesay J, Bentham P, Burns A, Ballard C, Holmes C, McKeith I, Barber R, Dening T, Ritchie C, Jones R, Baldwin A, Passmore P, Findlay D, Hughes A, Macharouthu A, Banerjee S, Jones R, Knapp M, Brown RG, Jacoby R, Adams J, Griffin M, Gray R. Determining the minimum clinically important differences for outcomes in the DOMINO trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Aug; 26(8):812-7.

Dhillon J, Andries K, Phillips PP, Mitchison DA. Bactericidal activity of the diarylquinoline TMC207 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis outside and within cells. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010 Sep; 90(5):301-5.

Phillips PP, Nunn AJ. Challenges of Phase III study design for trials of new drug regimens for the treatment of TB. Future Med Chem. 2010 Aug; 2(8):1273-82.

Mwenya DM, Charalambous BM, Phillips PP, Mwansa JC, Batt SL, Nunn AJ, Walker S, Gibb DM, Gillespie SH. Impact of cotrimoxazole on carriage and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in HIV-infected children in Zambia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Sep; 54(9):3756-62.

Phillips PP, Davies GR, Mitchison DA. Biomarkers for tuberculosis disease activity, cure, and relapse. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Feb; 10(2):69-70; author reply 70-1.

Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Mitchison DA. Timing of relapse in short-course chemotherapy trials for tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Feb; 14(2):241-2.

Jones R, Sheehan B, Phillips P, Juszczak E, Adams J, Baldwin A, Ballard C, Banerjee S, Barber B, Bentham P, Brown R, Burns A, Dening T, Findlay D, Gray R, Griffin M, Holmes C, Hughes A, Jacoby R, Johnson T, Jones R, Knapp M, Lindesay J, McKeith I, McShane R, Macharouthu A, O'Brien J, Onions C, Passmore P, Raftery J, Ritchie C, Howard R. DOMINO-AD protocol: donepezil and memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease - a multicentre RCT. Trials. 2009 Jul 24; 10:57.

Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Gillespie SH. Design issues in pivotal drug trials for drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB). Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Aug; 88 Suppl 1:S85-92.

Davies GR, Phillips PP, Nunn AJ. Biomarkers and surrogate end points in clinical trials of tuberculosis treatment. J Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 15; 196(4):648-9; author reply 649-50.

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