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Faculty Profiles

Payam Nahid, MD, MPH
M_MED-PULM-ZSFG
Professor

1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 5
San Francisco, CA 94110
415-206-5464
pnahid@ucsf.edu

I conduct clinical trials and translational research in TB with the goal of improving the care of patients with TB and HIV/TB worldwide. My research is conducted both in the United States and internationally, specifically in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our research team in Vietnam conducts NIH and CDC-funded field studies of new TB diagnostics, Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in TB therapeutics (as part of the CDC-TB Trials Consortium) and latent TB infection treatment implementation studies (sponsored by CDC-Division of Global Migration and Quarantine), in close partnership with the Vietnam National TB Program, the Vietnam National Lung Hospital, the Hanoi Lung Hospital, Cho Ray Hospital and the Vietnam National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology. I am protocol co-chair of an international, FDA-registration trial evaluating daily, high dose rifapentine-based shortened regimens for drug susceptible TB, sponsored by the CDC-TB Trials Consortium in partnership with the NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Group. I also serve on the WHO Task Force on the Development of Policies for Introduction of New TB Drugs and Treatment Regimens. With funding from NIH NIAID and in collaboration with bench and translational scientists, I also lead TB biomarker discovery and qualification programs to identify improved biomarkers of treatment effect. I maintain an active academic clinical practice and attend at the Chest Clinic at San Francisco General Hospital, on the inpatient pulmonary service, the medical intensive care unit, and at the SFDPH TB Control Clinic. I provide clinical TB consultation and trainings as part of the CDC-funded UCSF Curry International Tuberculosis Center (www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu), and have contributed to the development of U.S. and international practice guidelines for the treatment of TB.

Education and Training

Location Degree or Training Specialty Date
University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship

Related Web Sites

In the News

Recent Articles (66)

Mehaffy C, Dobos KM, Nahid P, Kruh-Garcia NA. Second generation multiple reaction monitoring assays for enhanced detection of ultra-low abundance Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides in human serum. Clin Proteomics. 2017; 14:21.

Feng JY, Jarlsberg LG, Salcedo K, Rose J, Janes M, Lin SG, Osmond DH, Jost KC, Soehnlen MK, Flood J, Graviss EA, Desmond E, Moonan PK, Nahid P, Hopewell PC, Kato-Maeda M. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics associated with clustering of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Jul 01; 21(7):766-773.

Dheda K, Gumbo T, Maartens G, Dooley KE, McNerney R, Murray M, Furin J, Nardell EA, London L, Lessem E, Theron G, van Helden P, Niemann S, Merker M, Dowdy D, Van Rie A, Siu GK, Pasipanodya JG, Rodrigues C, Clark TG, Sirgel FA, Esmail A, Lin HH, Atre SR, Schaaf HS, Chang KC, Lange C, Nahid P, Udwadia ZF, Horsburgh CR, Churchyard GJ, Menzies D, Hesseling AC, Nuermberger E, McIlleron H, Fennelly KP, Goemaere E, Jaramillo E, Low M, Jara CM, Padayatchi N, Warren RM. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 Mar 15.

Savic RM, Weiner M, MacKenzie WR, Engle M, Whitworth WC, Johnson JL, Nsubuga P, Nahid P, Nguyen NV, Peloquin CA, Dooley KE, Dorman SE. Defining the optimal dose of rifapentine for pulmonary tuberculosis: Exposure-response relations from two phase II clinical trials. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Aug; 102(2):321-331.

Zhou XY, Jeffris KE, Yu EY, Zheng B, Goodwill PW, Nahid P, Conolly SM. First in vivo magnetic particle imaging of lung perfusion in rats. Phys Med Biol. 2017 May 07; 62(9):3510-3522.

Lienhardt C, Nahid P, Rich ML, Bansbach C, Kendall EA, Churchyard G, González-Angulo L, D'Ambrosio L, Migliori GB, Raviglione M. Target regimen profiles for treatment of tuberculosis: a WHO document. Eur Respir J. 2017 Jan; 49(1).

Kendall EA, Shrestha S, Cohen T, Nuermberger E, Dooley KE, Gonzalez-Angulo L, Churchyard GJ, Nahid P, Rich ML, Bansbach C, Forissier T, Lienhardt C, Dowdy DW. Priority-Setting for Novel Drug Regimens to Treat Tuberculosis: An Epidemiologic Model. PLoS Med. 2017 Jan; 14(1):e1002202.

Salepci B, Caglayan B, Nahid P, Parmaksiz ET, Kiral N, Fidan A, Comert SS, Dogan C, Gungor GA. Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients Referred for Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 Dec 16.

Dela Cruz CS, Lyons PG, Pasnick S, Weinstock T, Nahid P, Wilson KC, Thomson CC. Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Nov; 13(11):2060-2063.

Alipanah N, Cattamanchi A, Menzies R, Hopewell PC, Chaisson RE, Nahid P. Treatment of non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis with shortened fluoroquinolone-based regimens: a meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Nov; 20(11):1522-1528.

Peloquin CA, Dorman SE, Vernon A, Battista Migliori G, Nahid P. Reply to Alffenaar et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 26.

Jayakumar A, Savic RM, Everett CK, Benator D, Alland D, Heilig CM, Weiner M, Friedrich SO, Martinson NA, Kerrigan A, Zamudio C, Goldberg SV, Whitworth WC, Davis JL, Nahid P. Xpert MTB/RIF Assay shows faster clearance of M. tuberculosis DNA with higher rifapentine exposure. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Oct 12.

Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N, Barry PM, Brozek JL, Cattamanchi A, Chaisson LH, Chaisson RE, Daley CL, Grzemska M, Higashi JM, Ho CS, Hopewell PC, Keshavjee SA, Lienhardt C, Menzies R, Merrifield C, Narita M, O'Brien R, Peloquin CA, Raftery A, Saukkonen J, Schaaf HS, Sotgiu G, Starke JR, Migliori GB, Vernon A. Executive Summary: Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 1; 63(7):853-67.

Sotgiu G, Nahid P, Loddenkemper R, Abubakar I, Miravitlles M, Migliori GB. The ERS-endorsed official ATS/CDC/IDSA clinical practice guidelines on treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2016 Oct; 48(4):963-971.

Blount RJ, Tran MC, Everett CK, Cattamanchi A, Metcalfe JZ, Connor D, Miller CR, Grinsdale J, Higashi J, Nahid P. Tuberculosis progression rates in U.S. Immigrants following screening with interferon-gamma release assays. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16(1):875.

Walter ND, de Jong BC, Garcia BJ, Dolganov GM, Worodria W, Byanyima P, Musisi E, Huang L, Chan ED, Van TT, Antonio M, Ayorinde A, Kato-Maeda M, Nahid P, Leung AM, Yen A, Fingerlin TE, Kechris K, Strong M, Voskuil MI, Davis JL, Schoolnik GK. Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Impaired Host Immunity in HIV-Infected Patients. J Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15; 214(8):1205-11.

Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N, Barry PM, Brozek JL, Cattamanchi A, Chaisson LH, Chaisson RE, Daley CL, Grzemska M, Higashi JM, Ho CS, Hopewell PC, Keshavjee SA, Lienhardt C, Menzies R, Merrifield C, Narita M, O'Brien R, Peloquin CA, Raftery A, Saukkonen J, Schaaf HS, Sotgiu G, Starke JR, Migliori GB, Vernon A. Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 10.

Phillips PP, Dooley KE, Gillespie SH, Heinrich N, Stout JE, Nahid P, Diacon AH, Aarnoutse RE, Kibiki GS, Boeree MJ, Hoelscher M. A new trial design to accelerate tuberculosis drug development: the Phase IIC Selection Trial with Extended Post-treatment follow-up (STEP). BMC Med. 2016; 14(1):51.

Furin J, Alirol E, Allen E, Fielding K, Merle C, Abubakar I, Andersen J, Davies G, Dheda K, Diacon A, Dooley KE, Dravnice G, Eisenach K, Everitt D, Ferstenberg D, Goolam-Mahomed A, Grobusch MP, Gupta R, Harausz E, Harrington M, Horsburgh CR, Lienhardt C, McNeeley D, Mitnick CD, Nachman S, Nahid P, Nunn AJ, Phillips P, Rodriguez C, Shah S, Wells C, Thomas-Nyang'wa B, du Cros P. Drug-resistant tuberculosis clinical trials: proposed core research definitions in adults. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Mar; 20(3):290-4.

Dooley KE, Phillips PP, Nahid P, Hoelscher M. Challenges in the clinical assessment of novel tuberculosis drugs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Jul 1; 102:116-22.

Nicol MP, Gnanashanmugam D, Browning R, Click ES, Cuevas LE, Detjen A, Graham SM, Levin M, Makhene M, Nahid P, Perez-Velez CM, Reither K, Song R, Spiegel HM, Worrell C, Zar HJ, Walzl G. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 15; 61Suppl 3:S164-72.

Chaisson LH, Reber C, Phan H, Switz N, Nilsson LM, Myers F, Nhung NV, Luu L, Pham T, Vu C, Nguyen H, Nguyen A, Dinh T, Nahid P, Fletcher DA, Cattamanchi A. Evaluation of mobile digital light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Sep; 19(9):1068-72.

Slater M, Tran MC, Platt L, Luu LT, Phan HT, Pham PT, Do TB, Nguyen HT, Gaur RL, Parsonnet J, Cattamanchi A, Luo R, Nahid P, Banaei N. In vitro immunomodulation for enhancing T cell-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 83(1):41-5.

Jayakumar A, Vittinghoff E, Segal MR, MacKenzie WR, Johnson JL, Gitta P, Saukkonen J, Anderson J, Weiner M, Engle M, Yoon C, Kato-Maeda M, Nahid P. Serum biomarkers of treatment response within a randomized clinical trial for pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015 Jul; 95(4):415-20.

Lönnroth K, Migliori GB, Abubakar I, D'Ambrosio L, de Vries G, Diel R, Douglas P, Falzon D, Gaudreau MA, Goletti D, González Ochoa ER, LoBue P, Matteelli A, Njoo H, Solovic I, Story A, Tayeb T, van der Werf MJ, Weil D, Zellweger JP, Abdel Aziz M, Al Lawati MR, Aliberti S, Arrazola de Oñate W, Barreira D, Bhatia V, Blasi F, Bloom A, Bruchfeld J, Castelli F, Centis R, Chemtob D, Cirillo DM, Colorado A, Dadu A, Dahle UR, De Paoli L, Dias HM, Duarte R, Fattorini L, Gaga M, Getahun H, Glaziou P, Goguadze L, Del Granado M, Haas W, Järvinen A, Kwon GY, Mosca D, Nahid P, Nishikiori N, Noguer I, O'Donnell J, Pace-Asciak A, Pompa MG, Popescu GG, Robalo Cordeiro C, Rønning K, Ruhwald M, Sculier JP, Simunovic A, Smith-Palmer A, Sotgiu G, Sulis G, Torres-Duque CA, Umeki K, Uplekar M, van Weezenbeek C, Vasankari T, Vitillo RJ, Voniatis C, Wanlin M, Raviglione MC. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries. Eur Respir J. 2015 Apr; 45(4):928-52.

Walter ND, Dolganov GM, Garcia BJ, Worodria W, Andama A, Musisi E, Ayakaka I, Van TT, Voskuil MI, de Jong BC, Davidson RM, Fingerlin TE, Kechris K, Palmer C, Nahid P, Daley CL, Geraci M, Huang L, Cattamanchi A, Strong M, Schoolnik GK, Davis JL. Transcriptional Adaptation of Drug-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis During Treatment of Human Tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 15; 212(6):990-8.

Dorman SE, Savic RM, Goldberg S, Stout JE, Schluger N, Muzanyi G, Johnson JL, Nahid P, Hecker EJ, Heilig CM, Bozeman L, Feng PJ, Moro RN, MacKenzie W, Dooley KE, Nuermberger EL, Vernon A, Weiner M. Daily rifapentine for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A randomized, dose-ranging trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb 1; 191(3):333-43.

Blount RJ, Tran B, Jarlsberg LG, Phan H, Thanh Hoang V, Nguyen NV, Lewinsohn DA, Nahid P. Childhood tuberculosis in northern Viet Nam: a review of 103 cases. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97267.

Sheu LC, Tran TM, Jarlsberg LG, Marras TK, Daley CL, Nahid P. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections at San Francisco General Hospital. Clin Respir J. 2014 May 6.

Budzik JM, Jarlsberg LG, Higashi J, Grinsdale J, Hopewell PC, Kato-Maeda M, Nahid P. Pyrazinamide resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage and treatment outcomes in San Francisco, California. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95645.

Yoon C, Davis JL, Huang L, Muzoora C, Byakwaga H, Scibetta C, Bangsberg DR, Nahid P, Semitala FC, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Cattamanchi A. Point-of-care C-reactive protein testing to facilitate implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):551-6.

Nahid P, Bliven-Sizemore E, Jarlsberg LG, De Groote MA, Johnson JL, Muzanyi G, Engle M, Weiner M, Janjic N, Sterling DG, Ochsner UA. Aptamer-based proteomic signature of intensive phase treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2014 May; 94(3):187-96.

Chang SH, Nahid P, Eitzman SR. Hepatotoxicity in Children Receiving Isoniazid Therapy for Latent Tuberculosis Infection. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014 Sep; 3(3):221-7.

Chang SH, Eitzman SR, Nahid P, Finelli ML. Factors associated with failure to complete isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents. J Infect Public Health. 2014 Mar-Apr; 7(2):145-52.

Menzies D, Nahid P. Update in tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease 2012. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Oct 15; 188(8):923-7.

Zumla A, Nahid P, Cole ST. Advances in the development of new tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 May; 12(5):388-404.

De Groote MA, Nahid P, Jarlsberg L, Johnson JL, Weiner M, Muzanyi G, Janjic N, Sterling DG, Ochsner UA. Elucidating novel serum biomarkers associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61002.

Abubakar I, Zignol M, Falzon D, Raviglione M, Ditiu L, Masham S, Adetifa I, Ford N, Cox H, Lawn SD, Marais BJ, McHugh TD, Mwaba P, Bates M, Lipman M, Zijenah L, Logan S, McNerney R, Zumla A, Sarda K, Nahid P, Hoelscher M, Pletschette M, Memish ZA, Kim P, Hafner R, Cole S, Migliori GB, Maeurer M, Schito M, Zumla A. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jun; 13(6):529-39.

Dorman SE, Goldberg S, Stout JE, Muzanyi G, Johnson JL, Weiner M, Bozeman L, Heilig CM, Feng PJ, Moro R, Narita M, Nahid P, Ray S, Bates E, Haile B, Nuermberger EL, Vernon A, Schluger NW. Substitution of rifapentine for rifampin during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: study 29 of the tuberculosis trials consortium. J Infect Dis. 2012 Oct 1; 206(7):1030-40.

Nahid P, Menzies D. Update in tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease 2011. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun 15; 185(12):1266-70.

Dantes R, Metcalfe J, Kim E, Kato-Maeda M, Hopewell PC, Kawamura M, Nahid P, Cattamanchi A. Impact of isoniazid resistance-conferring mutations on the clinical presentation of isoniazid monoresistant tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37956.

Nahid P, Kim PS, Evans CA, Alland D, Barer M, Diefenbach J, Ellner J, Hafner R, Hamilton CD, Iademarco MF, Ireton G, Kimerling ME, Lienhardt C, MacKenzie WR, Murray M, Perkins MD, Posey JE, Roberts T, Sizemore C, Stevens WS, Via L, Williams SD, Yew WW, Swindells S. Clinical research and development of tuberculosis diagnostics: moving from silos to synergy. J Infect Dis. 2012 May 15; 205 Suppl 2:S159-68.

Goodridge A, Cueva C, Lahiff M, Muzanye G, Johnson JL, Nahid P, Riley LW. Anti-phospholipid antibody levels as biomarker for monitoring tuberculosis treatment response. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 May; 92(3):243-7.

Kato-Maeda M, Nahid P. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage--what's in your lungs? Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 15; 54(2):220-4.

Nahid P, Saukkonen J, Mac Kenzie WR, Johnson JL, Phillips PP, Andersen J, Bliven-Sizemore E, Belisle JT, Boom WH, Luetkemeyer A, Campbell TB, Eisenach KD, Hafner R, Lennox JL, Makhene M, Swindells S, Villarino ME, Weiner M, Benson C, Burman W. CDC/NIH Workshop. Tuberculosis biomarker and surrogate endpoint research roadmap. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct 15; 184(8):972-9.

Nahid P, Horne DJ, Jarlsberg LG, Reiner AP, Osmond D, Hopewell PC, Bibbins-Domingo K. Racial differences in tuberculosis infection in United States communities: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Aug 1; 53(3):291-4.

Frahm M, Goswami ND, Owzar K, Hecker E, Mosher A, Cadogan E, Nahid P, Ferrari G, Stout JE. Discriminating between latent and active tuberculosis with multiple biomarker responses. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011 May; 91(3):250-6.

Steingart KR, Jotblad S, Robsky K, Deck D, Hopewell PC, Huang D, Nahid P. Higher-dose rifampin for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Mar; 15(3):305-16.

Nahid P, Jarlsberg LG, Rudoy I, de Jong BC, Unger A, Kawamura LM, Osmond DH, Hopewell PC, Daley CL. Factors associated with mortality in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11:1.

Horne DJ, Royce SE, Gooze L, Narita M, Hopewell PC, Nahid P, Steingart KR. Sputum monitoring during tuberculosis treatment for predicting outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Jun; 10(6):387-94.

Nahid P, Bliven EE, Kim EY, Mac Kenzie WR, Stout JE, Diem L, Johnson JL, Gagneux S, Hopewell PC, Kato-Maeda M. Influence of M. tuberculosis lineage variability within a clinical trial for pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10753.

Kim EY, Nahid P, Hopewell PC, Kato-Maeda M. Novel hot spot of IS6110 insertion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Apr; 48(4):1422-4.

Metcalfe JZ, Cattamanchi A, Vittinghoff E, Ho C, Grinsdale J, Hopewell PC, Kawamura LM, Nahid P. Evaluation of quantitative IFN-gamma response for risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Jan 1; 181(1):87-93.

Burman WJ, Bliven EE, Cowan L, Bozeman L, Nahid P, Diem L, Vernon A. Relapse associated with active disease caused by Beijing strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jul; 15(7):1061-7.

Cattamanchi A, Dantes RB, Metcalfe JZ, Jarlsberg LG, Grinsdale J, Kawamura LM, Osmond D, Hopewell PC, Nahid P. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jan 15; 48(2):179-85.

Steingart KR, Dendukuri N, Henry M, Schiller I, Nahid P, Hopewell PC, Ramsay A, Pai M, Laal S. Performance of purified antigens for serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Feb; 16(2):260-76.

Cattamanchi A, Nahid P, Marras TK, Gotway MB, Lee TJ, Gonzalez LC, Morris A, Webb WR, Osmond DH, Daley CL. Detailed analysis of the radiographic presentation of Mycobacterium kansasii lung disease in patients with HIV infection. Chest. 2008 Apr; 133(4):875-80.

Nyamathi A, Nahid P, Berg J, Burrage J, Christiani A, Aqtash S, Morisky D, Leake B. Efficacy of nurse case-managed intervention for latent tuberculosis among homeless subsamples. Nurs Res. 2008 Jan-Feb; 57(1):33-9.

Walter ND, Jasmer RM, Grinsdale J, Kawamura LM, Hopewell PC, Nahid P. Reaching the limits of tuberculosis prevention among foreign-born individuals: a tuberculosis-control program perspective. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1; 46(1):103-6.

Nahid P, Gonzalez LC, Rudoy I, de Jong BC, Unger A, Kawamura LM, Osmond DH, Hopewell PC, Daley CL. Treatment outcomes of patients with HIV and tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun 1; 175(11):1199-206.

Chang C, Grush A, McClintock DE, Nahid P, Tang JF. Unusual finding on bronchoscopy: trauma patient identified as a body stuffer. J Clin Anesth. 2006 Dec; 18(8):628-30.

Nyamathi AM, Christiani A, Nahid P, Gregerson P, Leake B. A randomized controlled trial of two treatment programs for homeless adults with latent tuberculosis infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jul; 10(7):775-82.

Nahid P, Daley CL. Prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr; 19(2):189-93.

Nahid P, Pai M, Hopewell PC. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006; 3(1):103-10.

Jasmer RM, Nahid P, Hopewell PC. Clinical practice. Latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med. 2002 Dec 5; 347(23):1860-6.

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