Faculty ProfilesCarolyn Calfee, MD, MAS
505 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94117
Carolyn S. Calfee, MD MAS is Associate Professor in Residence of Medicine and Anesthesia at UCSF, where she attends in the intensive care units at Moffitt-Long Hospital. Dr. Calfee received her undergraduate degree from Yale University and her medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She came to UCSF for residency in Internal Medicine and stayed to complete her chief residency and Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine fellowship. She also completed her Masters in Clinical Research at UCSF in 2009. After research training with Drs. Michael Matthay and Mark Eisner, she joined the faculty of the division in 2007. Dr. Calfee is also a member of UCSF's Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and an associate member of the UCSF Cancer Center.
Dr. Calfee's primary academic focus is the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current research projects include: (1) the role of biomarkers in investigating ALI/ARDS pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis; (2) the role of cigarette smoke exposure in susceptibility to lung injury; and (3) novel treatments for acute lung injury.
Education and Training
|Location||Degree or Training||Specialty||Date|
|University of California, San Francisco||M.A.S. in Clinical Research||Graduate Division (Advance Training in Clinical Research)||2009|
|University of Pensylvannia||M.D.||School of Medicine||1999|
|University of California, San Francisco||Residency||School of Medicine|
Related Web Sites
- Clinical Profile at UCSF Medical Center
- Clinical Trial of Stem Cells for ARDS
- Profile at UCSF Pulmonary & Critical Care Division
In the News
- Researchers Develop Stem Cell Therapies for Acute Lung Injury (Oct 14, 2013)
- ER Patients Unlock Vital Info to Treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Jun 04, 2013)
- Media Advisory: UCSF to Host Symposium on Tobacco Research (Feb 02, 2012)
Recent Articles (98)
Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz NL, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct 16.
Mehta S, Burns KEA, Machado FR, Fox-Robichaud AE, Cook DJ, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Burnham EL, Kissoon N, Marshall JC, Mancebo J, Finfer S, Hartog C, Reinhart K, Maitland K, Stapleton RD, Kwizera A, Amin P, Abroug F, Smith O, Laake JH, Shrestha GS, Herridge MS. Gender Parity in Critical Care Medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug 15; 196(4):425-429.
Zhao Z, Wickersham N, Kangelaris KN, May AK, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Koyama T, Ware LB. External validation of a biomarker and clinical prediction model for hospital mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2017 Aug; 43(8):1123-1131.
Zinter MS, Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Alkhouli MF, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Incorporating Inflammation into Mortality Risk in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2017 May; 45(5):858-866.
Bos LD, Schouten LR, van Vught LA, Wiewel MA, Ong DSY, Cremer O, Artigas A, Martin-Loeches I, Hoogendijk AJ, van der Poll T, Horn J, Juffermans N, Calfee CS, Schultz MJ. Identification and validation of distinct biological phenotypes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome by cluster analysis. Thorax. 2017 Oct; 72(10):876-883.
Gotts JE, Abbott J, Fang X, Yanagisawa H, Takasaka N, Nishimura SL, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Worsens Endotoxin-Induced Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema in Mice. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Mar 09.
Hendrickson CM, Abbott J, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Higher mini-BAL total protein concentration in early ARDS predicts faster resolution of lung injury measured by more ventilator-free days. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 May 01; 312(5):L579-L585.
Bhatraju PK, Mukherjee P, Robinson-Cohen C, O'Keefe GE, Frank AJ, Christie JD, Meyer NJ, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Christiani DC, Himmelfarb J, Wurfel MM. Acute kidney injury subphenotypes based on creatinine trajectory identifies patients at increased risk of death. Crit Care. 2016 Nov 17; 20(1):372.
Spicer AC, Calfee CS, Zinter MS, Khemani RG, Lo VP, Alkhouli MF, Orwoll BE, Graciano AL, Boriosi JP, Howard JP, Flori HR, Matthay MA, Sapru A. A Simple and Robust Bedside Model for Mortality Risk in Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Oct; 17(10):907-916.
Prescott HC, Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX. Toward Smarter Lumping and Smarter Splitting: Rethinking Strategies for Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trial Design. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul 15; 194(2):147-55.
Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Manley GT, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. The acute respiratory distress syndrome following isolated severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Jun; 80(6):989-97.
Sapru A, Liu KD, Wiemels J, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Jorgenson E, Witte JS, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Association of common genetic variation in the protein C pathway genes with clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2016 May 23; 20(1):151.
Ware LB, Zhao Z, Koyama T, May AK, Matthay MA, Lurmann FW, Balmes JR, Calfee CS. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Increases the Risk of Developing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 May 15; 193(10):1143-50.
Moazed F, Burnham EL, Vandivier RW, O'Kane CM, Shyamsundar M, Hamid U, Abbott J, Thickett DR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF, Calfee CS. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation. Thorax. 2016 Dec; 71(12):1130-1136.
Diamond JM, Porteous MK, Roberts LJ, Wickersham N, Rushefski M, Kawut SM, Shah RJ, Cantu E, Lederer DJ, Chatterjee S, Lama VN, Bhorade S, Crespo M, McDyer J, Wille K, Orens J, Weinacker A, Arcasoy S, Shah PD, Wilkes DS, Hage C, Palmer SM, Snyder L, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Christie JD. The relationship between plasma lipid peroxidation products and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation is modified by donor smoking and reperfusion hyperoxia. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016 Apr; 35(4):500-507.
Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Wang CY, Janz DR, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Timing of Intubation and Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1):120-9.
Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Zinter MS, Alkhouli MF, Khemani RG, Flori HR, Neuhaus JM, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Elevated soluble thrombomodulin is associated with organ failure and mortality in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2015 Dec 14; 19:435.
Zinter MS, Spicer A, Orwoll BO, Alkhouli M, Dvorak CC, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Plasma angiopoietin-2 outperforms other markers of endothelial injury in prognosticating pediatric ARDS mortality. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 Feb 01; 310(3):L224-31.
Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1790-7.
Hendrickson CM, Dobbins S, Redick BJ, Greenberg MD, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. Misclassification of acute respiratory distress syndrome after traumatic injury: The cost of less rigorous approaches. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Sep; 79(3):417-24.
Calfee CS, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Kangelaris KN, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Distinct molecular phenotypes of direct vs indirect ARDS in single-center and multicenter studies. Chest. 2015 Jun; 147(6):1539-1548.
Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Hendrickson CM, Redick BJ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Callcut RA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. Differences in degree, differences in kind: characterizing lung injury in trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Apr; 78(4):735-41.
Kangelaris KN, Prakash A, Liu KD, Aouizerat B, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ, Rogers A, Seeley EJ, Chu J, Liu T, Osterberg-Deiss T, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Jun 01; 308(11):L1102-13.
Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Matthay MA. Erratum to: plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):574.
Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Abbot J, Matthay MA. Plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):470-8.
Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Vojnik R, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Rogers AJ, Levitt J, Wiener-Kronish J, Bajwa EK, Leavitt A, McKenna D, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jan; 3(1):24-32.
Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2058-68.
Ware LB, Lee JW, Wickersham N, Nguyen J, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Donor smoking is associated with pulmonary edema, inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in ex vivo human donor lungs. Am J Transplant. 2014 Oct; 14(10):2295-302.
Krupa A, Fol M, Rahman M, Stokes KY, Florence JM, Leskov IL, Khoretonenko MV, Matthay MA, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Tvinnereim A, Rosenfield GR, Kurdowska AK. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Sep 15; 307(6):L435-48.
Liu KD, Wilson JG, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan ML, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Kangelaris KN, Gotts JE, Rogers AJ, Levitt JE, Wiener-Kronish JP, Delucchi KL, Leavitt AD, McKenna DH, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2014; 4:22.
Moseson EM, Zhuo H, Chu J, Stein JC, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study. J Intensive Care. 2014; 2:40.
Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Ingram RJ, Gibson DS, O'Kane D, McKeown ST, Edwards A, Taggart C, Elborn JS, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, O'Kane CM. Keratinocyte growth factor promotes epithelial survival and resolution in a human model of lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 15; 189(12):1520-9.
Calfee CS, Delucchi K, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Subphenotypes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: latent class analysis of data from two randomised controlled trials. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Aug; 2(8):611-20.
Kornblith LZ, Kutcher ME, Redick BJ, Calfee CS, Vilardi RF, Cohen MJ. Fibrinogen and platelet contributions to clot formation: implications for trauma resuscitation and thromboprophylaxis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Feb; 76(2):255-6; discussion 262-3.
Wang CY, Calfee CS, Paul DW, Janz DR, May AK, Zhuo H, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN. One-year mortality and predictors of death among hospital survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Mar; 40(3):388-96.
Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Shields MO, MacSweeney R, Duffy MJ, Johnston JR, McGuigan J, Backman JT, Calfee CS, Matthay MM, Griffiths MJ, McDowell C, Elborn SJ, O'Kane CM. Effect of simvastatin on physiological and biological outcomes in patients undergoing esophagectomy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2014 Jan; 259(1):26-31.
Kallet RH, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. The association between physiologic dead-space fraction and mortality in subjects with ARDS enrolled in a prospective multi-center clinical trial. Respir Care. 2014 Nov; 59(11):1611-8.
Ware LB, Koyama T, Zhao Z, Janz DR, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, May AK, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation distinguish severe sepsis patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 24; 17(5):R253.
Brown LM, Calfee CS, Howard JP, Craig TR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF. Comparison of thermodilution measured extravascular lung water with chest radiographic assessment of pulmonary oedema in patients with acute lung injury. Ann Intensive Care. 2013 Aug 11; 3(1):25.
Levitt JE, Calfee CS, Goldstein BA, Vojnik R, Matthay MA. Early acute lung injury: criteria for identifying lung injury prior to the need for positive pressure ventilation*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8):1929-37.
Agrawal A, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Chu JC, Imp BM, Cortez A, Abbott J, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Plasma angiopoietin-2 predicts the onset of acute lung injury in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 01; 187(7):736-42.
Ware LB, Neyrinck A, O'Neal HR, Lee JW, Landeck M, Johnson E, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Comparison of chest radiograph scoring to lung weight as a quantitative index of pulmonary edema in organ donors. Clin Transplant. 2012 Sep-Oct; 26(5):665-71.
Cohen MJ, Call M, Nelson M, Calfee CS, Esmon CT, Brohi K, Pittet JF. Critical role of activated protein C in early coagulopathy and later organ failure, infection and death in trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2012 Feb; 255(2):379-85.
Christie JD, Wurfel MM, Feng R, O'Keefe GE, Bradfield J, Ware LB, Christiani DC, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ, Matthay M, Meyer NJ, Kim C, Li M, Akey J, Barnes KC, Sevransky J, Lanken PN, May AK, Aplenc R, Maloney JP, Hakonarson H. Genome wide association identifies PPFIA1 as a candidate gene for acute lung injury risk following major trauma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e28268.
Kangelaris KN, Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Pawlikowska L, Witte JS, Vittinghoff E, Zhuo H, Auerbach AD, Ziv E, Matthay MA. The association between a Darc gene polymorphism and clinical outcomes in African American patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2012 May; 141(5):1160-1169.
Brown LM, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Brower RG, Thompson BT, Checkley W. A simple classification model for hospital mortality in patients with acute lung injury managed with lung protective ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec; 39(12):2645-51.
Zhang M, Hsu R, Hsu CY, Kordesch K, Nicasio E, Cortez A, McAlpine I, Brady S, Zhuo H, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Calfee CS, Liu KD. FGF-23 and PTH levels in patients with acute kidney injury: A cross-sectional case series study. Ann Intensive Care. 2011 Jun 14; 1(1):21.
Calfee CS, Ware LB, Glidden DV, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Use of risk reclassification with multiple biomarkers improves mortality prediction in acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr; 39(4):711-7.
Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, Benowitz N, Call M, Pittet JF, Cohen MJ. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun 15; 183(12):1660-5.
Meyer NJ, Li M, Feng R, Bradfield J, Gallop R, Bellamy S, Fuchs BD, Lanken PN, Albelda SM, Rushefski M, Aplenc R, Abramova H, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Beers MF, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ, Pittet JF, Christiani DC, O'Keefe GE, Ware LB, May AK, Wurfel MM, Hakonarson H, Christie JD. ANGPT2 genetic variant is associated with trauma-associated acute lung injury and altered plasma angiopoietin-2 isoform ratio. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 15; 183(10):1344-53.
Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee CS. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1):40-5.
Cohen MJ, Carles M, Brohi K, Calfee CS, Rahn P, Call MS, Chesebro BB, West MA, Pittet JF. Early release of soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts after severe trauma in humans. J Trauma. 2010 Jun; 68(6):1273-8.
Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Parsons PE, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Wong HR. Plasma interleukin-8 is not an effective risk stratification tool for adults with vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2010 Jun; 38(6):1436-41.
Fremont RD, Koyama T, Calfee CS, Wu W, Dossett LA, Bossert FR, Mitchell D, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, May AK, Ware LB. Acute lung injury in patients with traumatic injuries: utility of a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis and pathogenesis. J Trauma. 2010 May; 68(5):1121-7.
Collard HR, Calfee CS, Wolters PJ, Song JW, Hong SB, Brady S, Ishizaka A, Jones KD, King TE, Matthay MA, Kim DS. Plasma biomarker profiles in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jul; 299(1):L3-7.
Cohen MJ, Brohi K, Calfee CS, Rahn P, Chesebro BB, Christiaans SC, Carles M, Howard M, Pittet JF. Early release of high mobility group box nuclear protein 1 after severe trauma in humans: role of injury severity and tissue hypoperfusion. Crit Care. 2009; 13(6):R174.
Suratt BT, Eisner MD, Calfee CS, Allard JB, Whittaker LA, Engelken DT, Petty JM, Trimarchi T, Gauthier L, Parsons PE. Plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4):1322-8.
Kropski JA, Fremont RD, Calfee CS, Ware LB. Clara cell protein (CC16), a marker of lung epithelial injury, is decreased in plasma and pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2009 Jun; 135(6):1440-1447.
Levitt JE, Bedi H, Calfee CS, Gould MK, Matthay MA. Identification of early acute lung injury at initial evaluation in an acute care setting prior to the onset of respiratory failure. Chest. 2009 Apr; 135(4):936-943.
Briot R, Frank JA, Uchida T, Lee JW, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Elevated levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, a marker of alveolar epithelial type I cell injury, predict impaired alveolar fluid clearance in isolated perfused human lungs. Chest. 2009 Feb; 135(2):269-275.
Calfee CS, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Conner ER, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Feb; 35(2):248-57.
Calfee CS, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Wickersham N, Matthay MA. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end products and clinical outcomes in acute lung injury. Thorax. 2008 Dec; 63(12):1083-9.
Calfee CS, Eisner MD, Ware LB, Thompson BT, Parsons PE, Wheeler AP, Korpak A, Matthay MA. Trauma-associated lung injury differs clinically and biologically from acute lung injury due to other clinical disorders. Crit Care Med. 2007 Oct; 35(10):2243-50.
Calfee CS, Budev MM, Matthay MA, Church G, Brady S, Uchida T, Ishizaka A, Lara A, Ranes JL, deCamp MM, Arroliga AC. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end-products predicts duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation in patients after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007 Jul; 26(7):675-80.